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The Communist Manifesto (Penguin Classics) Paperback – 16 Dec 2004

by Sanapalas
Rs. 154.00

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Product Description About the Author Karl Marx was born on May 5 1818. The revolutionary German socialist was the member of an affluent middle-class family. While studying at the University of Berlin he developed an interest in the philosophical concepts of the Young Hegelians. He is referred to as the father of the Communist movement around the globe. He criticized capitalism to be a system that is designed exclusively to exploit the working class and benefit the rich. He has published several books the most celebrated of which are The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. Karl Marx died in 1883. Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved. MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY A SPECTRE is haunting Europe--the spectre of Communism. All the Powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Czar Metternich and Guizot French Radicals and German police-spies. Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as Communistic by its opponents in power? Where the Opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of Communism against the more advanced opposition parties as well as against its reactionary adversaries? Two things result from this fact. I. Communism is already acknowledged by all European Powers to be itself a Power. II. It is high time that Communists should openly in the face of the whole world publish their views their aims their tendencies and meet this nursery tale of the Spectre of Communism with a Manifesto of the party itself. To this end Communists of various nationalities have assembled in London and sketched the following Manifesto to be published in the English French German Italian Flemish and Danish languages. I. BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS* The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave patrician and plebeian lord and serf guild-master* and journeyman in a word oppressor and oppressed stood in constant opposition to one another carried on an uninterrupted now hidden now open fight a fight that each time ended either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large or in the common ruin of the contending classes. In the earlier epochs of history we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of society into various orders a manifold gradation of social rank. In ancient Rome we have patricians knights plebeians slaves; in the Middle Ages feudal lords vassals guild-masters journeymen apprentices serfs; in almost all of these classes again subordinate gradations. The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but established new classes new conditions of oppression new forms of struggle in place of the old ones. Our epoch the epoch of the bourgeoisie possesses however this distinctive feature: it has simplified the class antagonisms: Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed. The discovery of America the rounding of the Cape opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets the colonisation of America trade with the colonies the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally gave to commerce to navigation to industry an impulse never before known and thereby to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society a rapid development. The feudal system of industry under which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop. Meantime the markets kept ever growing the demand ever rising. Even manufacture no longer sufficed. Thereupon steam and machinery revolutionized industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant Modern Industry the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires the leaders of whole industrial armies the modern bourgeois. Modern industry has established the world-market for which the discovery of America paved the way. This market has given an immense development to commerce to navigation to communication by land. This development has in its turn reacted on the extension of industry; and in proportion as industry commerce navigation railways extended in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed increased its capital and pushed into the background every class handed down from the Middle Ages. We see therefore how the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange. Each step in the development of the bourgeoisie was accompanied by a corresponding political advance of that class. An oppressed class under the sway of the feudal nobility an armed and self-governing association in the mediaeval commune* here independent urban republic (as in Italy and Germany) there taxable "third estate" of the monarchy (as in France) afterwards in the period of manufacture proper serving either the semi-feudal or the absolute monarchy as a counterpoise against the nobility and in fact corner-stone of the great monarchies in general the bourgeoisie has at last since the establishment of Modern Industry and of the world-market conquered for itself in the modern representative State exclusive political sway. The executive of the modern State is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisie historically has played a most revolutionary part. The bourgeoisie wherever it has got the upper hand has put an end to all feudal patriarchal idyllic relations. It has pitilessly torn asunder the motley feudal ties that bound man to his "natural superiors" and has left remaining no other nexus between man and man than naked self-interest than callous "cash payment." It has drowned the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervour of chivalrous enthusiasm of philistine sentimentalism in the icy water of egotistical calculation. It has resolved personal worth into exchange value and in place of the numberless indefeasible chartered freedoms has set up that single unconscionable freedom--Free Trade. In one word for exploitation veiled by religious and political illusions it has substituted naked shameless direct brutal exploitation. The bourgeoisie has stripped of its halo every occupation hitherto honoured and looked up to with reverent awe. It has converted the physician the lawyer the priest the poet the man of science into its paid wage-labourers. The bourgeoisie has torn away from the family its sentimental veil and has reduced the family relation to a mere money relation. The bourgeoisie has disclosed how it came to pass that the brutal display of vigour in the Middle Ages which Reactionists so much admire found its fitting complement in the most slothful indolence. It has been the first to show what man's activity can bring about. It has accomplished wonders far surpassing Egyptian pyramids Roman aqueducts and Gothic cathedrals; it has conducted expeditions that put in the shade all former Exoduses of nations and crusades. The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production and thereby the relations of production and with them the whole relations of society. Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form was on the contrary the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes. Constant revolutionizing of production uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed fast-frozen relations with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions are swept away all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air all that is holy is profaned and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real conditions of life and his relations with his kind. The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere settle everywhere establish connexions everywhere. The bourgeoisie has through its exploitation of the world-market given a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every country. To the great chagrin of Reactionists it has drawn from under the feet of industry the national ground on which it stood. All old-established national industries have been destroyed or are daily being destroyed. They are dislodged by new industries whose introduction becomes a life and death question for all civilized nations by industries that no longer work up indigenous raw material but raw material drawn from the remotest zones; industries whose products are consumed not only at home but in every quarter of the globe. In place of the old wants satisfied by the productions of the country we find new wants requiring for their satisfaction the products of distant lands and climes. In place of the old local and national seclusion and self-sufficiency we have intercourse in every direction universal inter-dependence of nations. And as in material so also in intellectual production. The intellectual creations of individual nations become common property. National one-sidedness and narrow-mindedness become more and more impossible and from the numerous national and local literatures there arises a world literature. The bourgeoisie by the rapid improvement of all instruments of production by the immensely facilitated means of communication draws all even the most barbarian nations into civilisation. The cheap prices of its commodities are the heavy artillery with which it batters down all Chinese walls with which it forces the barbarians' intensely obstinate hatred of foreigners to capitulate. It compels all nations on pain of extinction to adopt the bourgeois mode of production; it compels them to introduce what it calls civilisation into their midst i.e. to become bourgeois themselves. In one word it creates a world after its own image. The bourgeoisie has subjected the country to the rule of the towns. It has created enormous cities has greatly increased the urban population as compared with the rural and has thus rescued a considerable part of the population from the idiocy of rural life. Just as it has made the country dependent on the towns so it has made barbarian and semi-barbarian countries dependent on the civilized ones nations of peasants on nations of bourgeois the East on the West. The bourgeoisie keeps more and more doing away with the scattered state of the population of the means of production and of property. It has agglomerated population centralised means of production and has concentrated property in a few hands. The necessary consequence of this was political centralisation. Independent or but loosely connected provinces with separate interests laws governments and systems of taxation became lumped together into one nation with one government one code of laws one national class-interest one frontier and one customs-tariff. The bourgeoisie during its rule of scarce one hundred years has created more massive and more colossal productive forces than have all preceding generations together. Subjection of Nature's forces to man machinery application of chemistry to industry and agriculture steam-navigation railways electric telegraphs clearing of whole continents for cultivation canalisation of rivers whole populations conjured out of the ground--what earlier century had even a presentiment that such productive forces slumbered in the lap of social labour? We see then: the means of production and of exchange on whose foundation the bourgeoisie built itself up were generated in feudal society. At a certain stage in the development of these means of production and of exchange the conditions under which feudal society produced and exchanged the feudal organisation of agriculture and manufacturing industry in one word the feudal relations of property became no longer compatible with the already developed productive forces; they became so many fetters. They had to be burst asunder; they were burst asunder. Into their place stepped free competition accompanied by a social and political constitution adapted to it and by the economical and political sway of the bourgeois class. A similar movement is going on before our own eyes. Modern bourgeois society with its relations of production of exchange and of property a society that has conjured up such gigantic means of production and of exchange is like the sorcerer who is no longer able to control the powers of the nether world whom he has called up by his spells. For many a decade past the history of industry and commerce is but the history of the revolt of modern productive forces against modern conditions of production against the property relations that are the conditions for the existence of the bourgeoisie and of its rule. It is enough to mention the commercial crises that by their periodical return put on its trial each time more threateningly the existence of the entire bourgeois society. In these crises a great part not only of the existing products but also of the previously created productive forces are periodically destroyed. In these crises there breaks out an epidemic that in all earlier epochs would have seemed an absurdity--the epidemic of over-production. Society suddenly finds itself put back into a state of momentary barbarism; it appears as if a famine a universal war of devastation had cut off the supply of every means of subsistence; industry and commerce seem to be destroyed; and why? Because there is too much civilisation too much means of subsistence too much industry too much commerce. The productive forces at the disposal of society no longer tend to further the development of the conditions of bourgeois property; on the contrary they have become too powerful for these conditions by which they are fettered and so soon as they overcome these fetters they bring disorder into the whole of bourgeois society endanger the existence of bourgeois property. The conditions of bourgeois society are too narrow to comprise the wealth created by them. And how does the bourgeoisie get over these crises? On the one hand by enforced destruction of a mass of productive forces; on the other by the conquest of new markets and by the more thorough exploitation of the old ones. That is to say by paving the way for more extensive and more destructive crises and by diminishing the means whereby crises are prevented. The weapons with which the bourgeoisie felled feudalism to the ground are now turned against the bourgeoisie itself. But not only has the bourgeoisie forged the weapons that bring death to itself; it has also called into existence the men who are to wield those weapons--the modern working class--the proletarians. In proportion as the bourgeoisie i.e. capital is developed in the same proportion is the proletariat the modern working class developed--a class of labourers who live only so long as they find work and who find work only so long as their labour increases capital. These labourers who must sell themselves piece-meal are a commodity like every other article of commerce and are consequently exposed to all the vicissitudes of competition to all the fluctuations of the market. Owing to the extensive use of machinery and to division of labour the work of the proletarians has lost all individual character and consequently all charm for the workman. He becomes an appendage of the machine and it is only the most simple most monotonous and most easily acquired knack that is required of him. Hence the cost of production of a workman is restricted almost entirely to the means of subsistence that he requires for his maintenance and for the propagation of his race. But the price of a commodity and therefore also of labour is equal to its cost of production. In proportion therefore as the repulsiveness of the work increases the wage decreases. Nay more in proportion as the use of machinery and division of labour increases in the same proportion the burden of toil also increases whether by prolongation of the working hours by increase of the work exacted in a given time or by increased speed of the machinery etc.

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